Moving towards safer alternatives

Glossary

A

Act = A bill (see definitinon) that has become law, in USA legislation

Article = An object which during production is given a special shape, surface or design, which determines its function to a greater degree than does its chemical composition. Examples of articles are a car, a battery and a telephone, according to REACH (see definition).

B

BCF = Bioconcentration factor- parameter (L/kg) that gives an indication of the accumulation potential of a substance in an organism.Can either be expressed as the ratio of the concentration of a substance to the concentration in water once a steady state has been achieved (static BCF), or, on a non-equillibrium basis, as the quotient of the uptake and depuration rate constants (dynamic BCF).

Benchmark dose = The dose causing a predetermined change in response.The BMD concept involves fitting a mathematical model to dose-response data.

Bill = Document under consideration prior to becoming an act (see definition) in the USA legislation system.

Bioaccumulative = A property causing the substances to build up (accumulate) in the body. Such substances build up in fat tissue in the body and can not be excreted by the body.

C

Candidate list = A list of substances within REACH meeting the criteria of Substances of Very High Concern, and proposed by either the European Commission or the EU Member states. These substances are candidates for REACH Authorisation.

Carcinogen = A carcinogenic substance causes cancer.

CAS number = Chemical Abstracts Services registration number. A unique number assigned to each substances submitted to CAS. Used world wide to positively identify chemicals.

Chemical = A chemical is another word for substance or compound. Identified by a unique CAS or EC number.

CMR = The abbreviation for Carcinogenic, Mutagenic and toxic to Reproduction, chemicals with inherent properties which can cause cancer, alter DNA and damage reproductive systems. Part of the REACH Substances of Very High Concern.

Codification = Process of bringing together a EU legislative act and all its amendments in a single new act. The new act passes through the full legislative process and replaces the acts being codified.

Commission (if not specified otherwise) = European Commission is the executive body of the European Union responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the Union’s treaties and the general running of the Union.The Commission is divided into departments known as Directorates-General (DGs) e.g. DG Environment.

Consolidation = Combining in a single EU legislative text the provisions of a basic instrument and all subsequent amendments. Consolidated texts are used for practical reasons only, they have no legal value.

D

Directive = Legislative act of the European Union, which requires Member States to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result.

DMEL = The Derived Minimal Effect Level.For non-threshold effects, the underlying assumption is that a no-effect-level cannot be established and a DMEL expresses an exposure level corresponding to a low, possibly theoretical, risk, which should be seen as a tolerable risk

DNEL = The Derived No-Effect Level is the level of exposure to the substance below which no adverse effects are expected to occur. It is the level above which humans should not be exposed. DNEL is a derived level of exposure because it is normally calculated on the basis of available dose descriptors from animal studies such as No Observed Adverse Effect Levels (NOAELs) or benchmark doses (BMDs)

Downstream user =A user of a chemical produced by a manufacturer. This can be a formulator, article manufacturer or a consumer.

E

EC number = European Commission registration number. The unique number under which a substance is registered in the European Union.

ECHA = The European Chemicals Agency in Helsinki, Finland, established to oversee and implement the REACH system.

EDC = Endocrine Disruptor Chemical. A substance that disrupts or alters the hormonal systems in the body, causing widespread effects throughout the organism. These effects can be observed at extremely low doses.

EEE = Electrical and Electronic Equipment.

EINECS = European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances

Endocrine disruptor = A substance that disrupts or alters the hormonal systems in the body causing widespread effects throughout the organism. These effects can be observed at extremely low doses.

Equivalent level of concern = The safety net of the REACH regulation for substances which do not automatically fall into the categories CMR, PBT or vPvB, but is of equivivalent level of concern in terms of the potential damage it may cause.

ESIS = European chemical Substances Information System. An IT System with information on chemicals related to Biocidal Products, PBTs vPvBs, Classification and Labelling, Export and Import of Dangerous Chemicals and HPV/LPV substances.

H

Halogens = Reactive substances consisting of Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine or Astatine.

Hazard = Intrinsic property of a substance which is always present. See also Risk.

HPV = High Production Volume chemical, manufactured/imported at more than 1000 tonnes/year.

I

In vivo testing = Testing within a living organism.

K

KOW =Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient is a coefficient representing the ratio of the solubility of a compound in octanol to its solubility in water. The higher the KOW, the more soluble is the compound in  non-polar, organic solvents. Log KOW is generally used as a relative indicator of the tendency of an organic compound to adsorb to soil. Log KOW values are generally inversely related to aqueous solubility and directly proportional to molecular weight

L

LOAEC = The Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Concentration is the lowest tested concentration at which there are statistically significant increases in frequency or severity of adverse effects between the exposed population and an appropriate control group.

LOAEL = The Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level is the lowest tested dose or exposure level at which there are statistically significant increases in frequency or severity of adverse effects between the exposed population and an appropriate control group

LOEL = The Lowest Observed Effect Level is the lowest tested dose or exposure level at which, in a study, a statistically significant effect is observed in the exposed population compared with an appropriate control group

LPV = Low Production Volume chemical, manufactured/imported at more than 100 tonnes/year.

M

Manufacturing = Production or extraction of substances in the natural state

Manufacturer = Any natural or legal person established within the Community who manufactures a substance within the Community

MSCA = Member State Competent Authority. The authority in each EU Member state which monitors REACH and other chemical issues.

Mutagenic = Causes irreparable mutations in the DNA which will be transferred on to the next generation.

N

NOAEL = No Observed Adverse Effect Level is the highest tested dose or exposure level at which there are no statistically significant increases in the frequency or severity of adverse effects between the exposed population and an appropriate
control group

NOEC = No Observed Effect Concentration  is the highest tested concentration at which, in a study, no
statistically significant effect is observed in the exposed population compared with an appropriate control group.

NOEL  = No Observed Effect Level   is the highest tested dose or exposure level at which, in a study, no statistically significant effect is observed in the exposed population compared with an appropriate control group

O

Organic halogens = Organic substances including the halogen elements Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine.

P

PBT = Substances that are Persistent, Bioaccumulative and Toxic are substances that do not easily break down, instead they build up in nature and in eg. the fatty tissue of mammals, with a potential to cause serious and long-term irreversible effects. Part of the REACH Substances of Very High Concern.

Persistent = A persistent substance will not break down or degrade in humans, animals or nature. This means that they will stay for a very long time once produced.

Phase-in substance: a substance which meets at least one of the following criteria:a) it is listed in EINECS;(b) was manufactured in the Community, or in countries that acceded EU up to 2004, but was not placed on the market in the 15 years before the entry into force of REACH c) was placed on the market in the Community, or in countries that acceded to EU up to 2004, before entry into force of REACH and was considered notified in accordance with the Directive 67/548/EEC,but does not meet the REACH definition of a polymer.

PNEC = Predicted No-Effect Concentration= Concentration of a substance below which adverse effects in the environmental sphere of concern are not expected to occur.

POP = Persistent Organic Pollutant. POPs are organic substances which persist for a long time in nature. They are tackled globally through the provision of the Stockholm Convention.

POPRC = The Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee within the Stockholm Convention.

Preparation = A mixture or solution composed of two or more substances.

R

REACH = Regulation for Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals, the EU chemical regulation entered into force in 2007.

Regulation = Legislative act of the European Union that becomes immediately enforceable as law in all Member States simultaneously.

Repeal = A legal act by which the regulations, directives and decisions are formally repealed and their validity is terminated.

Risk = Combination of “Hazard”, probability and exposure. See also Hazard.

RoHS = EU Directive 2002/95/EC on the Restriction of the use of certain Hazardous Substances in electrical and electronic equipment. Came into force in 2006 and restricting six substances and groups of substances in electrical and electronic equipment.

S

SAICM =The Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management was adopted in 2006 providing an overarching framework for global action on chemical hazards and enable governments and other stakeholders to collaborate more effectively on reducing toxic risks.

Substance = One single chemical substance identified by its unique Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS) or European Community (EC) registration number.

Substances of Very High Concern = The most hazardous substances according to article 57 of REACH. These are substances that are Carcinogenic, Mutagenic and toxic to Reproduction (CMR), Persistent, Bioaccumulative and Toxic (PBT), very Persistent and very Bioaccumulative (vPvB) or substances of Equivalent level of Concern.

SVHC = See Substances of Very High Concern

T

Toxic = Intrinsic property of a substance rendering it to harm, impair or elsehow damage living organisms.

Toxic for reproduction = A substance which is toxic for reproduction will impair the ability to get children or cause irreversible harm to the offspring itself.

Transposition = process by which the European Union’s Member States give force to a directive by passing appropriate implementation measures.

U

Use = Any processing, formulation, consumption, storage, keeping, treatment, filling into containers, transfer from one container to another, mixing, production of an article or any other utilisation

UVCB = Substances of Unknown or Variable Composition, Complex Reaction products and Biological materials

V

vPvB = Substances that are very Persistent and very Bioaccumulative but do not need to be toxic as defined today. However they persist in the environment and accumulate in the food chain for such a long period of time that they are also considered to be Substances of Very High Concern according to REACH.

W

Weight of evidence = Considering the strengths and weaknesses of various pieces of information in reaching a conclusion concerning a property of the substance

Search SUBSPORT
Website
Restricted and priority substances database» link
Case story database » link

External substitution websites and databases
Loading
Logo Grontmij Logo Istas Logo Chemsec Logo Kooperationsstelle Hamburg